Benefits of Alkaline, Ionized
By Dr. Hidemitsu Hayashi, M.D.
Why Drink Alkaline Ionized
Water, The chemistry of life.
Whenever we attempt to determine whether there is life as we know it on Mars or
planets, scientists first seek to establish whether or not water is present. Why?
Because life on earth totally depends on water.
A High percentage of living things, both plant and animal are found in water. All life on
earth is thought to have arisen from water. The bodies of all living organisms are
composed largely of water. About 70 to 90 percent of all organic matter is water.
The chemical reactions in all plants and animals that support life take place in a water
medium. Water not only provides the medium to make these life sustaining reactions
possible, but water itself is often an
important reactant or product of these reactions. In
short, the chemistry of life is water chemistry.
Water, the universal solvent
Water is a universal, superb solvent due to the marked polarity of the water
and its tendency to form hydrogen bonds with other molecules. One water molecule,
expressed with the chemical symbol H2O, consists of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen
Standing alone, the hydrogen positive proton at its core with one negative electron
revolving around it in athree-dimensional shell. Oxygen, on the other hand, contains 8
protons in its nucleus with 8 electrons revolving around it.
This is often shown in chemical notation as the letter O
surrounded by eight dots representing 4 sets of
The single hydrogen electron and the 8 electrons of oxygen are the key to the
chemistry of life because this is where hydrogen and oxygen atoms combine to form a
water molecule, or split to form ions.
Hydrogen tends to ionize by losing its single electron and form single H+ ions, which
are simply isolated protons since the hydrogen atom contains no neutrons. A hydrogen
bond occurs when the electron of a single hydrogen atom is shared with another
electronegative atom such as oxygen that lacks an electron.
Polarity of water molecules
In a water molecule, two hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded to the oxygen
But because the oxygen atom is larger than the hydrogen's, its attraction for the
hydrogen's electrons is correspondingly greater so the electrons are drawn closer into
the shell of the larger oxygen atom and away from the hydrogen shells. This means that
although the water molecule as a whole is stable, the greater mass of the oxygen
nucleus tends to draw in all the electrons in the molecule including the shared
hydrogen electrons giving the oxygen portion of the molecule a slight electronegative
The shells of the hydrogen atoms, because their electrons are closer to the oxygen,
take on a small electropositive charge. This means water molecules have a tendency
to form weak bonds with water molecules because the oxygen end of the molecule is
negative and the hydrogen ends are positive.
A hydrogen atom, while remaining covalently bonded to the oxygen of its own
molecule, can form a weak bond with the oxygen of another molecule. Similarly, the
oxygen end of a molecule can form a weak attachment with the hydrogen ends of other
molecules. Because water molecules have this polarity, water is a continuous
These weak bonds play a crucial role in stabilizing the shape of many of the large
molecules found in living matter. Because these bonds are weak, they are readily
broken and re-formed during normal physiological reactions. The disassembly and
re-arrangement of such weak bonds is in essence the chemistry of life.
To illustrate water's ability to break down other
substances, consider the simple example of putting
a small amount of table salt in a glass of tap water.
With dry salt (NaCl) the attraction between the
electropositive sodium (Na+) and electronegative
chlorine (Cl-) atoms of salt is very strong until it is
placed in water. After salt is placed in water, the
attraction of the electronegative oxygen of the water
molecule for the positively charged sodium ions, and
the similar attraction of the electropositive hydrogen ends of the water molecule for the
negatively charged chloride ions, are greater than the mutual attraction between the
outnumbered Na+ and Cl- ions. In water the ionic bonds of the sodium chloride
molecule are broken easily because of the competitive action of the numerous water
As we can see from this simple example, even the delicate configuration of individual
water molecules enables them to break relatively stronger bonds by converging on
them. This is why we call water the universal solvent. It is a natural solution that breaks
the bonds of larger, more complex molecules. This is the chemistry of life on earth, in
water and on land.
Basically, reduction means the addition of an electron (e-), and its converse,
means the removal of an electron. The addition of an electron, reduction, stores
energy in the reduced compound. The removal of an electron, oxidation, liberates
energy from the oxidized compound. Whenever one substance is reduced, another is
To clarify these terms, consider any two molecules, A and B, for example.
When molecules A and B come into contact, here is what happens:
B grabs an electron from molecule A.
Molecule A has been oxidized because it has lost an electron.
The net charge of B has been reduced because it has gained a negative electron (e-).
In biological systems, removal or addition of an electron constitutes the most frequent
mechanism of oxidation-reduction reactions. These oxidation-reduction reactions are
frequently called redox reactions.
Acids and Bases
An acid is a substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+)
water. A base is a substance that decreases the concentration of hydrogen ions, in
other words, increasing the concentration of hydroxide ions OH-.
The degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution is measured in terms of a value known
as pH, which is the negative logarithm of the concentration of hydrogen ions:
= 1/log[H+] = -log[H+]
What is pH?
On the pH scale, which ranges from 0 on the acidic end to 14 on the alkaline end,
solution is neutral if its pH is 7. At pH 7, water contains equal concentrations of H+ and
OH- ions. Substances with a pH less than 7 are acidic because they contain a higher
concentration of H+ ions. Substances with a pH higher than 7 are alkaline because
they contain a higher concentration of OH- than H+. The pH scale is a log scale so a
change of one pH unit means a tenfold change in the concentration of hydrogen ions.
Importance of balancing pH
Living things are extremely sensitive to pH and function best (with certain
such as certain portions of the digestive tract) when solutions are nearly neutral. Most
interior living matter (excluding the cell nucleus) has a pH of about 6.8.
Blood plasma and other fluids that surround the cells in the body have a pH of 7.2 to
7.3. Numerous special mechanisms aid in stabilizing these fluids so that cells will not
be subject to appreciable fluctuations in pH. Substances which serve as mechanisms
to stabilize pH are called buffers. Buffers have the capacity to bond ions and remove
them from solution whenever their concentration begins to rise. Conversely, buffers
can release ions whenever their concentration begins to fall. Buffers thus help to
minimize the fluctuations in pH. This is an important function because many
biochemical reactions normally occurring in living organisms either release or use up
NOTE: Dr. Hayashi is a Heart Specialist and Director of the Water Institute of Japan.
Oxygen: Too much of a good thing?
Oxygen is essential to survival. It is relatively stable in the air, but when too
absorbed into the body it can become active and unstable and has a tendency to
attach itself to any biological molecule, including molecules of healthy cells. The
chemical activity of these free radicals is due to one or more pairs of unpaired
About 2% of the oxygen we normally breathe becomes active oxygen, and this amount
increases to approximately 20% with aerobic exercise.
Such free radicals with unpaired electrons are unstable and have a high oxidation potential,
which means they are capable of stealing electrons from other cells. This chemical
mechanism is very useful in disinfectants such as hydrogen peroxide and ozone which
can be used to sterilize wounds or medical instruments. Inside the body these free
are of great benefit due to their ability to attack and eliminate bacteria, viruses and other waste products.
Active Oxygen in the body
Problems arise, however, when too many of these free radicals are turned loose in the
body where they can also damage normal tissue.
Putrefaction sets in when microbes in the air invade the proteins, peptides, and amino
acids of eggs, fish and meat. The result is an array of unpleasant substances such as:
These substances are also produced naturally in the digestive tract when we digest
food, resulting in the unpleasant odor evidenced in feces. Putrefaction of spoiled food
is caused by microbes in the air; this natural process is duplicated in the digestive
tract by intestinal microbes. All these waste products of digestion are pathogenic, that
is, they can cause disease in the body.
Hydrogen sulfide and ammonia are tissue toxins that can damage the liver.
Histamines contribute to allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis, urticaria (hives)
and asthma. Indoles and phenols are considered carcinogenic. Because waste
products such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, histamines, phenols and indoles are
toxic, the body's defense mechanisms try to eliminate them by releasing neutrophils (a
type of leukocyte, or white corpuscle). These neutrophils produce active oxygen,
oddball oxygen molecules that are capable of scavenging disintegrating tissues by
gathering electrons from the molecules of toxic cells.
Problems arise, however, when too many of these active oxygen molecules, or free
radicals, are produced in the body. They are extremely reactive and can also attach
themselves to normal, healthy cells and damage them genetically. These active
oxygen radicals steal electrons from normal, healthy biological molecules. This
electron theft by active oxygen oxidizes tissue and can cause disease.
Because active oxygen can damage normal tissue, it is essential to scavenge this
active oxygen from the body before it can cause disintegration of healthy tissue. If we
can find an effective method to block the oxidation of healthy tissue by active oxygen,
then we can attempt to prevent disease.
Antioxidants block dangerous oxidation
One way to protect healthy tissue from the ravages of oxidation caused by
oxygen is to provide free electrons to active oxygen radicals, thus neutralizing their
high oxidation potential and preventing them from reacting with healthy tissue.
Research on the link between diet and cancer is far from complete, but some
evidence indicates that what we eat may affect our susceptibility to cancer. Some
foods seem to help defend against cancer, others appear to promote it.
Much of the damage caused by carcinogenic substances in food may come about
because of an oxidation reaction in the cell. In this process, an oddball oxygen
molecule may damage the genetic code of the cell. Some researchers believe that
substances that prevent oxidation -- called ANTIOXIDANTS -- can block the damage.
This leads naturally to the theory that the intake of natural antioxidants could be an
important aspect of the body's defense against cancer. Substances that some believe
inhibit cancer include vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, selenium, and gluthione (an
amino acid). These substances are reducing agents. They supply electrons to free
radicals and block the interaction of the free radical with normal tissue.
How we can avoid illness
As we mentioned earlier, the presence of toxic waste products such as
sulfide, ammonia, histamines, indoles, phenols and scatoles impart an offensive odor
to human feces. In the medical profession, it is well known that patients suffering from
hepatitis and cirrhosis pass particularly odoriferous stools.
Excessively offensive stools caused by the presence of toxins are indicators of certain
diseases, and the body responds to the presence of these toxins by producing
neutrophil leukocytes to release active oxygen in an attempt to neutralize the damage
to organs that can be caused by such waste products. But when an excess amount of
such active oxygen is produced, it can damage healthy cells as well as neutralize
toxins. This leads us to the conclusion that we can minimize the harmful effect of these
active oxygen radicals by reducing them with an ample supply of electrons.
Water, the natural solution
There is no substitute for a healthy balanced diet, especially rich in
materials such as vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and other foods that are good
for us. However, these substances are not the best source of free electrons that can
block the oxidation of healthy tissue by active oxygen.
Water treated by electrolysis to increase its reduction potential is the best solution to
the problem of providing a safe source of free electrons to block the oxidation of
normal tissue by free oxygen radicals. We believe that reduced water, water with an
excess of free electrons to donate to active oxygen, is the best solution because:
The reduction potential of water can be dramatically increased over other antioxidants
in food or vitamin supplements.
The molecule weight of reduced water is low, making it fast acting and able to reach
all tissues of the body in a very short time.
What is IONIZED WATER?
Ionized water is the product of mild electrolysis which takes place in the
unit. The production of ionized water, its properties, and how it works in the human
body are described in the next section. Ionized water is treated tap water that has not
only been filtered, but has also been reformed in that it provides reduced water with a
large mass of electrons that can be donated to active oxygen in the body to block the
oxidation of normal cells.
IONIZED WATER UNIT
Tap water: What it is and isn't
Normal tap water, for example, with a pH of 7 is approximately neutral on the pH
of 0 to 14. When measured with an ORP (oxidation potential) meter its redox potential
is approximately +400 to +500 mV. Because it has a positive redox potential, it is apt
to acquire electrons and oxidize other molecules. Reduced Ionized Water, on the other
hand, has a negative redox potential of approximately -250 to -350 mV. This means it
has a large mass of electrons ready to donate to electron-thieving active oxygen.
Before discussing the properties of Ionized Water further, let's take a look at what
happens inside an Ionized Water producing unit.
How an IONIZED WATER Unit works
The Ionized Water unit, slightly taller and thicker than a large dictionary on
end, is an
electrical appliance connected to your kitchen water supply to perform electrolysis on
tap water before you drink it or use it in the kitchen for cooking or cleaning.
A special attachment re-directs tap water out of the faucet through a plastic hose into
the Ionized Water unit. Inside the Ionized Water unit, the water is first filtered through
activated charcoal. Next, the filtered water passes into an electrolysis chamber
equipped with a platinum-coated titanium electrode where electrolysis takes place.
Cations, positive ions, gather at the negative electrodes to create cathodic water
(reduced water). Anions, negatively charged ions, gather at the positive electrode to
make anodic water (oxidized water).
Through electrolysis, reduced water not only gains an excess amount of
electrons (e-), but the cluster of H 2O seem to be reduced in size from about 10
to 13 molecules per cluster to 5 to 6 molecules per cluster.
The reduced water comes out of the faucet, and the oxidized water comes out of
separate hose leading into the sink. You can use the reduced water for drinking or
cooking. The oxidation potential of the oxidized water makes it a good sterilizing
agent, ideal for washing hands, cleaning food or kitchen utensils, and treating minor
What the IONIZED WATER Unit Produces
Redox potential comparison
After electrolysis of the water inside the Ionized Water unit, reduced water
of the cathodic side and oxidized water comes out of the anodic side. Compare these
measurements of these three types of water: tap water before electrolysis, the
reduced water, and the oxidized water.
Redox potential, not pH, is the crucial factor
Traditionally we have judged the properties of water from the standpoint of pH,
words whether water is acidic or alkaline. According to Dr. Yoshiaki Matsuo PhD., the
inventor of the Ionized Water unit, "In my opinion, redox potential is more important
than pH. The importance of pH is over emphasized. For example, the average pH of
blood is 7.4 and acidosis or alkalosis are defined according to deviation within the
range of 7.4 +- 0.005. But nothing has been discussed about ORP, or
The pH of tap water is about pH 7, or neutral. When tap water is electrolyzed into
Ionized Water, its reduced water has a pH of about 9 and the oxidized water a pH of
about 4. Even if you make alkaline water of pH 9 by adding sodium hydroxide or make
acidic water of pH 3 by adding hydrogen chloride, you will find very little change in the
ORP values of the two waters. On the other hand, when you divide tap water with
electrolysis you can see the ORP fluctuate by as much as +- 1,000 mV. By electrolysis
we can obtain reduced water with negative potential that is good for the body.
USING IONIZED WATER
What IONIZED WATER Does
The Ionized Water unit produces two kinds of water with different redox
with a high reduction potential and the other with a high oxidation potential.
When taken internally, the reduced Ionized Water with its redox potential of -250
-350 mV readily donates its electrons to oddball oxygen radicals and blocks the
interaction of the active oxygen with normal molecules.
A biological molecule (BM) remains intact and undamaged.
Undamaged biological molecules are less susceptible to infection and disease.
Ionized Water gives up an extra electron and reduces the active oxygen (AO), thus
rendering it harmless. The AO is reduced without damaging surrounding biological
molecules. Substances which have the ability to counteract active oxygen by supplying
electrons are called scavengers. Reduced water, therefore, can be called scavenging
When taken internally, the effects of reduced water are immediate. Ionized Water
inhibits excessive fermentation in the digestive tract by reducing indirectly metabolites
such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, histamines, indoles, phenols and scatoles,
resulting in a cleaner stool within days after reduced water is taken on a regular basis.
In 1965, the Ministry of Welfare of Japan announced that reduced water
obtained from electrolysis can prevent abnormal fermentation of intestinal
Oxidized water with its redox potential of +700 to +800 mV is an oxidizing agent
can withdraw electrons from bacteria and kill them. The oxidized water from the
Ionized Water unit can be used to clean hands, kitchen utensils, fresh vegetables and
fruits, and to sterilize cutting boards and minor wounds. Tests have shown that
oxidized water can be used effectively to treat athlete's foot, minor burns, insect bites,
scratches, and so on.
Dr. Yoshiaki Matsuo, Vice Director of the Water Institute of Japan, has developed
another apparatus capable of producing hyperoxidized water with a redox potential of
+1,050 mV or more, and a pH lower than 2.7. Tests have shown that this hyper
oxidized water can quickly destroy MRSA (Methecillin Resistant Staphylococcus
Although hyperoxidized water is a powerful sterilizing agent, it won't harm the skin. In
fact, it can be used to heal. Hyperoxidized water has proven effective in Japanese
hospitals in the treatment of bedsores and operative wounds with complicated
But perhaps the most exciting future application of hyperoxidized water is in the field of
agriculture where it has been used effectively on plants to kill fungi and other plant
diseases. Hyperoxidized water is non-toxic, so agricultural workers can apply it without
wearing special protective equipment because there is no danger of skin or
respiratory damage. An added benefit of using hyperoxidized water to spray plants is
that there is no danger to the environment caused by the accumulation of toxic
chemicals in the ground.
Ionized Water superior to antioxidant diet
Today we read much about correct dieting principles and paying attention to what
eat in order to stay healthy. This is a sensible practice, but it is surprising that many of
us don't realize that the bulk of what eat is composed of water. Vegetables and fruits
are 90% water; fish and meat are about 70% water as well.
Even advocates of the importance of vitamin C in diet staples have to admit that its
potency, namely, the redox potential of this important vitamin, rapidly diminishes with
age and preparation for the dining table. Carbohydrates, the main consistent of
vegetables and fruit, has a molecular weight of 180 whereas water has a much lower
molecular weight of 18.
Ionized Water, with its low molecular weight and high reduction potential, makes it a
superior scavenging agent of active oxygen. But electrolysis inside the Ionized Water
unit not only charges the reduced water with electrons, it also reduces the size of
reduced water molecule clusters.
NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) analysis reveals that tap water and
well water consists of clusters of 10 to 13 H2 0 molecules. Electrolysis
of water in the Ionized Water unit reduces these clusters to about half
their normal size -- 5 to 6 water molecules per cluster.
As the graph shows, the NMR signal that measures cluster size by line width at
half-amplitude shows 65 Hz for reduced water and 133 Hz for tap water, revealing that
the reduced water clusters are approximately half the size of tap water clusters.
This is why Ionized Water is more readily absorbed by the body than untreated tap
water. Ionized Water quickly permeates the body and blocks the oxidation of
biological molecules by donating its abundant electrons to active oxygen, enabling
biological molecules to replace themselves naturally without damage caused by
oxidation that can cause diseases.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Upstream and downstream theory
Prevent disease at the source
According to Dr. Hidemitsu Hayashi, Director of the Water Institute of Japan,
eliminate the pollutants in a large stream that is contaminated at its source, we must
work on the problems upstream at the headwaters -- the source of the pollution -- not
downstream where we can only try to treat the evidence of damage caused by the
pollution. Ionized Water's contribution to preventive medicine is essentially upstream
According to our model, we consider the digestive tract upstream where we
water and food. Although many people today in developed countries are growing more
skeptical about what they eat, they tend to concentrate more on what the food contains
rather than the metabolized products of foods in the digestive tract.
For example, consider the typical balanced diet of meat and vegetables. Meat
protein is metabolized
into amines while nitrates from fertilizers used to grow vegetables metabolize into nitrites in the
digestive tract. These amines and nitrites combine to form nitrosamine, a recognized carcinogen.
We've already discussed that odoriferous feces are evidence of excessive fermentation in the
digestive tract, so reduced water performs a very important function upstream in the
digestive tract by reducing this excessive fermentation as evidenced by cleaner stools
within days of starting a steady regimen of reduced water.
Downstream from the digestive tract, starting at the liver, reduced water quickly
the liver and other organs due to, first, its lower molecular weight, and, secondly, the
size of its clusters. At tissue sites throughout the body, reduced water with its safe, yet
potent reduction potential readily donates its passenger electrons freely to active
oxygen and neutralizes them so they cannot damage the molecules of healthy cells.
Normal cells are protected from the electron thievery of active oxygen and allowed to
grow, mature, function and regenerate without interference from rogue, oddball oxygen
radicals which tend to steal the electrons from the molecules of normal, healthy
The water boom
We are now in the midst of a water boom. In Japan and other countries consumers
buying various kinds of bottled and canned water even though water is one of our most
abundant vital resources. Research data reveals that mineral waters have an ORP of
+200 mV, slightly lower than the +400 mV measured for ordinary tap water. We can
say that at least mineral water is marginally better than tap water from the viewpoint of
ORP. Compared to any processed water for sale, however, Ionized Water with its
reduction potential of -250 to -300 mV is beyond comparison due to its ability to
scavenge active oxygen radicals.